The periodic table serves to show the relationships between the different elements; it can also be used to predict the properties of new elements yet discovered or not yet synthesized.
It gives information and data on groups, elements, atomic mass, ionization energy, electronic configuration, atomic number, electronegativity, and oxidation states. The periodic table also provides a useful framework for analyzing chemical behavior; It is widely used in the area of chemistry and in many other sciences.
It was built in 1869 by the Russian scientist Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev to visualize the different relationships between the various chemical elements.
The periodic table is ordered by its atomic number, electron configurations, and recurring chemical properties. It is also ordered so that items with similar behaviors are in the same column.
The table has four rectangular blocks with similar chemical properties. Generally, the items located on the left side of a row are metals, and the non-metals are located on the right.
Elements are located on the periodic table based on their atomic structure. Each row and each column have special characteristics.
All rows in the table are read from left to right and each row is referred to as a period. Each column in the table is called a group. Each group in the table has the same number of electrons.
It is easy to find the number of electrons in the outer shell of each element in the table. Group one has one electron, group two has two, and so on.
A good periodic table is a great tool when it comes to solving problems in the area of chemistry. Periodic tables can be found on the web or they can be printed.
Uses of the periodic table, what is it for?
Know the symbol of the chemical element
Symbols are shorthand for the item’s name. In many cases, the abbreviation comes from the original Latin name.
Each symbol has one or two letters as an abbreviation. Usually, the symbol is an abbreviation of the name of the element but some symbols refer to the old names of the elements.
An example of this case is silver; its symbol is Ag, which refers to its old name which was argentum .
Know the atomic number of the element
This is the number of protons that an atom of this element contains. The number of protons is the deciding factor when it comes to distinguishing one element from another. The variation in the number of electrons or neutrons does not change the type of element.
Changing numbers of electrons produce ions, while changes in the number of neutrons produce isotopes. The modern periodic table is arranged in ascending order of atomic number.
Identify what the periods and groups of the periodic table mean
The horizontal rows are called periods. Each period indicates the highest level of energy that each of the electrons of that element occupies in its ground state.
The vertical columns are called groups. Each element in a group has the same valence electron number and they typically behave in a similar way when related to other elements.
The last two rows, the lanthanides and the actinides, belong to group 3B and are listed separately.
Know the name of the element
Many periodic tables also include the full name of the item. This is useful when it comes to knowing an element since it is not always possible to remember the symbols of all the elements.
Become familiar with the atomic mass of the element in atomic mass units
This number refers to the average heavy mass of the isotopes of a chemical element. Mendeleev’s original periodic table was organized so that the elements were displayed in ascending order of atomic mass or weight.
Identify the types of elements
Many periodic tables identify different types of elements by using different colors for different types of elements.
These types include alkali metals, base metals, transition metals, nonmetals, noble gases, allogens, alkaline earths, semi-metals, actinides, and lanthanides.
Show the different trends (periodicity)
The periodic table is organized to show the different types of trend (periodicity). Between them:
- The atomic radius, which is half the distance between the centers of two atoms that barely touch each other:
- It increases as you move from the top to the bottom of the periodic table.
- It descends as it moves from left to right through the periodic table.
- Ionization energy, which is the energy required to remove an electron from the atom.
- It descends as it moves up and down the periodic table.
- It increases as you move from left to right on the periodic table.
- Electronegativity , which measures the ability to form a chemical bond.
- It descends as it moves up and down.
- It increases as you move from left to right.
- Electron affinity, which refers to the ability of the element to accept an electron.
Electron affinity can be predicted based on the groups of the elements. Noble gases, such as argon and neon, have near zero electron affinity and tend not to accept electrons.
Halogens, like chlorine and iodine, have high electron affinities. Most of the other groups of elements have electron affinities lower than that of allogens, but much higher than that of noble gases.
- What is the purpose of the periodic table? Recovered from reference.com
- How to use a periodic table (2017) Recovered from thoughtco.com
- How are the elements of the periodic table organized? Recovered from reference.com
- Periodic table. Recovered from wikipeda.org
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