People with low intelligence or reduced intellectual abilities are called soperutano , which is commonly known as “fool”. It refers to people who have little capacity in one or more types of intelligence.
Intelligence is the capacity for logic, understanding, emotional awareness, creativity, learning, etc. and is characterized by motivation and self-awareness.
Intelligence allows you to remember descriptions and information to be used later. It has been studied very extensively, especially in humans, but it can also be present in some animals and plants.
You can also talk about machine intelligence, which is known as “artificial intelligence” and can be found in computer programs.
Einstein affirmed: “The true sign of intelligence is not knowledge but imagination”, while, for his part, Socrates affirmed: “I know that I am intelligent, because I know that I know nothing.” Many have been the philosophers who have tried to discover the true measure of intelligence.
Charles Spearman in 1904 argued that there are different types of intelligence that are related to each other and determined the “g factor” (general factor) in intelligence tests. Later, after numerous studies, the idea of multiple intelligence arose where it is determined that an individual can possess intelligence only in a certain area and not in others.
Albert Einstein was a person who according to certain studies had some language difficulties, it is believed that he had Asperger’s Syndrome.
Intellectual deficiency is a disability of brain functions and structures that cause limitations in activities and participation.
Some intellectual disabilities can be caused by traumatic brain injuries, learning disorders, or diseases such as Alzheimer’s.
These deficiencies can be global or partial and can appear from birth or in the development period, that is, before the age of 18, being then considered a disorder of the same.
What determines intelligence?
Intelligence is given through the genes of the mother and father, is affected by a wide variety of environmental factors and can be developed with mental exercise.
1- Hereditary factor
After numerous investigations about whether intelligence is inherited through genes, it has been concluded that the differences between people in the different intelligence tests are the result of genetic differences.
Genes make a substantial difference, but it is not the only determinant of intelligence. The brain and cerebral cortex at birth are practically to be developed, their definitive development is formed through different stimuli and information that are received from the environment.
2- Biological factor
Biological influences on intelligence can range from nutrition to stress.
In the prenatal stages and during the first months of life, neurons specialized in storing knowledge create synaptic connections.
Malnutrition during the first periods of growth, before birth and up to 24 months of life, can cause damage to cognitive development.
3- Environmental factor
The family nucleus is one of the factors that most influences the development of the individual and is crucial for the development of intelligence.
The fact of living in precarious situations can limit this development, mainly due to the limited access to education and training.
Eating a healthy diet also affects intellectual development, as well as having an optimal quality of sleep.
The consumption of drugs and alcohol can also have cerebral consequences, even incapacitating the individual.
Some more prominent types of intelligence are:
1- Linguistic intelligence
It is the ability to think and use language to express and understand complex meanings. It allows to understand and reflect on the use of language.
This ability is evident in people such as poets, novelists, journalists, and speakers.
People with this intelligence like and enjoy writing, reading, telling stories or even doing crossword puzzles and other hobbies.
2- Logical-mathematical intelligence
It is the ability to calculate, quantify and carry out any type of mathematical operations in an easy way. It allows to use abstract, symbolic thinking, have skills for sequential reasoning, etc.
This type of intelligence is possessed by mathematicians, scientists, and detectives. Usually the people who have it are interested in arithmetic, problem solving, strategy games or experiments.
3- Spatial intelligence
It is the ability to think in 3 dimensions such as mental images, spatial reasoning, image manipulation, graphics and various artistic skills.
People with this type of intelligence have a very active imagination and love to do mazes, puzzles and even daydreams.
Within this type of intelligence, we can find sculptors, painters or architects.
4- Musical intelligence
It is the ability to differentiate between tone, rhythm or sound. It allows to recognize, create, reproduce and reflect on music.
A good example of this capacity is that of composers, conductors, singers, musicians and even sensitive listeners.
People with musical intelligence tend to have a great ability to play instruments, read sheet music or compose music with great ease.
It is usually easy to see how there is a connection between music and emotions.
5- Emotional intelligence
It is the ability that people have to understand themselves, their thoughts and feelings so that they can later be used in planning their own life.
It implies the ability of people not only to love themselves but also the human condition itself.
Among the types of people with this intelligence are psychologists, spiritual leaders, and philosophers.
6- Naturalistic intelligence
It is the human capacity to distinguish, order, classify and understand between living beings and objects, as well as the development of sensitivity towards nature.
Among the people who most use this type of intelligence are biologists, farmers, botanists, cooks or hunters among others.
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- Wehmeyer, M., & Obremski, S. (nd). Intellectual deficiency. Retrieved on 05/07/2017, from cirrie.buffalo.edu.
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- (02 of 05 of 2017). Is intelligence determined by genetics? Retrieved on 05/07/2017, from ghr.nim.nih.gov.
- Scientific American. (sf). Is Intelligence Hereditary? Retrieved on 05/07/2017, from scientificamerican.com