What And What Are The Vanguard Movements?

The avant – garde movements are changes to current literature, art and politics. They were carried out after the First World War (1914-1918).

There are various avant-garde movements. In literature ultraism stands out; and in art, futurism and cubism stand out.

The avant-garde, according to historians, were thinkers who, starting in 1910, sought to renew certain aspects of culture, art and society. The vanguardismo also was known as avant-garde, translation of the same word in French.

The avant-garde symbolized innovative ideals. It represents a push of the limits of what is accepted as the norm or status quo , especially in the cultural sphere.

Avant-garde movements in literature

1- Ultraism

It had its beginnings in 1918 (just after the end of the First World War). It predominated in Spain and its main characteristic is the use of metaphor.

Its main author was Rafael Cansinos Assens, and it was widely disseminated in other important media of the time. Among these, the magazine Grecia de Sevilla stands out.

Another of its great and notorious characteristics is the partial elimination of links or adjectives that they considered little useful. This avant-garde movement had notable influences on the Futurist movement.

2- Creationism

The creationist literature was born in Chile, through one of its greatest exponents: the poet Vicente Huidoboro.

Its most essential characteristic, and the one that makes it follow the line of avant-garde, is the elimination of description.

Instead of describing the beauty that already exists in nature or in a certain context, the poet should create that beauty; hence its name.

The use of punctuation marks and other linguistic tools is also eliminated.

Avant-garde movements in art

In art, three main aspects were exposed, which sought to completely change the artistic context of the time. The most outstanding avant-garde artistic movements were:

1- Futurism

It was founded in Italy in 1909, specifically in Milan. Its main author, or at least the first to demonstrate part of the current, was Filippo Tommaso.

Futurism sought to leave behind what they considered the daily life of art. Instead, the current focused on expressing the beauty of other elements, such as cars, engines, among others.

2- Cubism

Cubism originated in France. The creator of this movement was the famous painter Pablo Picasso.

Cubism generated changes in almost any perspective of art, including poems. Regarding this, the masterlengua.com website indicates the following:

“The cubist poem is an instantaneous juxtaposition of autonomous images without any connection between them.”

The literature that follows this trend ensures that it “has no history” and that it does not follow elements such as semantics.

3- Dadaism

It was proposed by Hugo Ball during 1916. The first records of this type of literature were at the Cabaret Voltaire, in Switzerland. Later, the movement spread to the United States.

The main characteristic of this is the contrast of words, sounds and images. All this seeks to generate an artistic expression outside of what is considered “logical.”

The movement encompassed both poetry and painting. It had a great impact internationally and was supported by various well-known figures of art. Among these Breton.


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  2. characteristics.co. 10 characteristics of avant-garde. (2017). Colombia. Recovered from: caracteristicas.co.
  3. blogspot.com. Literary avant-garde. (2011). Recovered from: encyclopediavanguardista.blogspot.com
  4. ecured.cu. Vanguardism. (2015). Recovered from: www.ecured.cu
  5. abc.com.py. The literary avant-garde. (2007). Paraguay. Recovered from: abc.com.py

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