The typical costumes of Querétaro have characterized the citizen of this state, highlighting the values not only of the Queretaro people, but of the entire region. Querétaro is one of the states that make up the Mexican nation.
Its capital is the city of Santiago de Querétaro. In its cardinal points it limits with the state of Mexico, Guanajuato, Michoacán and San Luis de Potosí.
Despite being one of the states with the smallest territorial extension, it is seventh among the 10 most densely populated states.
Querétaro, like many other regions of present-day Mexico, has a great cultural load in its towns and inhabitants thanks to its history, before and after the conquest of the Spanish.
Currently, many of these cultural, material and immaterial manifestations, are preserved with great effort.
It is one of the states considered richest in the cultural sphere. It has a considerable amount of places that have been declared Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO.
Similarly, it was in Querétaro where the 1917 Constitution was written, which is why it is considered the cradle of Mexican independence.
Among its cultural manifestations closest to the citizen, not only celebrations and festivities, crafts and musical activities have been evidenced, but also characteristic costumes and outfits.
The traditional clothing of Querétaro, as in some other Mexican regions, is conceived as a representation of the traditional couple: a female ensemble for the woman, who is accompanied by a man who has his own harmonic clothing.
It is for this reason that several Mexican states have limited their traditional clothing to a single presentation as a couple, which is representative of all the richness and cultural variety.
The case of Querétaro is no exception, and although at some point more than 40 original costumes were conceived, today it has become difficult to gather information on that past.
Typical costume of the Queretaro woman
The typical costume of Queretaro women is made up of two main pieces (upper and lower) and accessories that complement it.
The skirt is long, has multiple colors and is accompanied by horizontal stripes. To provide contrast, the colors of the stripes can be black or brown.
The colors that are always present in this piece are yellow, blue, red, green and purple. The material that makes up the skirt is usually wool mainly, although canvas is also used.
The length of the skirt reaches to the ankle of the woman in order to enhance it. The lower part of the skirt usually includes a colored girdle accompanied by other details.
The upper part of the costume is made up of a cloak that covers the torso and back of the woman. This has the popular name of quechquemitl.
The quechquemitl is made of wool and is attractive due to its different color presentations: blue, purple or black. This shade is accompanied by usually white stripes and detailed fringes at the edges.
In more recent times, geometric and natural patterns have also found their place in this piece as a harmonious part of the entire Queretaro costume.
The accessories that accompany this typical costume can be colorful ribbons and crowns of small flowers. As footwear they use the classic huaraches, traditional in many states of Mexico.
This female costume, also known as Otomí, has historically been considered a luxury dress, from colonial times to the present. The acquisition of an authentic Queretaro suit is expensive.
Typical costume of the Queretaro man
The typical costume of the Queretaro man is much simpler. It is made up of two main pieces; one of these is a single-colored breeches, or wide pants, held only by a girdle.
They also wear a blanket shirt, usually the same color as the pants. It is common for men’s suits to always be white, although that is not essential.
On the feet they wear the popular huaraches and the only accessory they use is a bandana on the head.
Time and the informality of some situations have replaced the trousers with more common pants, although maintaining the same color as the rest of the suit.
Especially in traditional events, the manifestation of typical clothing is not considered complete without the presence of the couple.
Gala version of the Queretaro costume
According to some cultural studies that have been carried out in Querétaro, the existence and use of a gala version of the typical Queretaro costume has been verified.
Its use was intended only for traditional events and festivities of a special nature, such as the Tepeyac pilgrimage, which is of religious connotation.
This version came to be known as the luxury suit of Tolimán. Although its popularity was great at the time, its use did not last until the 21st century; It is considered to have fallen into disuse during the 1960s.
This gala dress, generally female, contained the same pieces of the traditional costume, although with different finishes and details: silk sash and wool shawl and petticoat, all made on a backstrap loom.
This gala version has also become one of the most expensive to acquire, having a price of 10,000 pesos or more for the complete set.
The male representation of this suit, although it has not been described in detail, was inspired by some images from the past that could be rescued.
These images showed an Otomi couple wearing the gala versions of what is now considered a typical Queretan costume.
The appearance of a group like this has allowed us to continue highlighting the Queretan values, in the search to avoid succumbing to a total homogenization of the regional and national Mexican culture.
Benitez, R. (April 4, 2017). They promote typical costumes. The Universal .
Fernández, Í. F. (2004). Mexico history. Pearson Education.
Herrera, AM (February 7, 2014). Typical costumes of the Mexican Republic . Obtained from Cultura Colectiva: culturacolectiva.com
Robles, ML (September 13, 2016). Typical costumes, important symbols of the culture of the State. Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico.