The totalizing or universal vision is one of the main characteristics of philosophy . This vision proposes that man should not only concentrate on the study of things, but must also delve into the causes and consequences of the phenomena that are part of their context.
The totalizing vision encompasses a series of aspects, such as the study of all the elements that surround man; this gives it its universal character. Also, this vision does not focus on one field of study, since you want to find all the possible answers.
Likewise, this vision explores knowledge itself and reason, as well as the foundation and origin of things. Through the totalizing or universal vision, philosophy seeks to satisfy the need of man to know about what surrounds him. Thanks to this approach, different branches of study were developed to achieve this goal.
-The universal study or the totalizing vision of philosophy began in ancient Greece with the approaches of Plato , Aristotle and Socrates .
-Socrates outlined the problem of the universality of things, from actions to words. This initiative began in the study of virtues; with this the essence-man relationship was established.
-In the beginning, the universal problem focused on taking general aspects to understand man and nature. For this reason Plato differentiated the world of things from that of ideas. The relationship between the two allowed mutual existence: the particular was a reflection of the universal. Therefore, it also includes the perception of reality and truth.
-Aristotle introduced a concept that criticized Plato’s ideas. He focused on demonstrating that the universal was part of each individual entity since it is the essence of the particular. The totalizing understanding comes from one’s own analysis, from reflection and abstraction. The universal is made up of several parts that, when joined, make up a whole.
-In the Middle Ages there was a topic ignored by the Greeks: the essence-existence. Saint Thomas Aquinas added the divine component to the understanding of man: the origin of things was due to the intervention of a higher being, God gives the essence and existence. During this time new philosophical trends also developed.
Realism, nominalism and moderate realism
These terms were covered during the Middle Ages since, as the studies deepened, new perspectives of man, truth and reality emerged.
It is a philosophical position that raised the relationship between the subject and the object of study that, in addition, are independent one in relation to the other. It is also called naive realism or platonic realism.
Philosophical doctrine that questions what are the elements or characteristics that should be considered as universal. For example, the representation of certain objects is due to the fact that they share features in common.
So, nominalism denies the concepts of the universal, since there is only room for the individual and particular.
Represented by Saint Thomas Aquinas, moderate realism contemplates the existence and interaction of universal facts as the predecessors of particular manifestations. It focuses on the balance between faith and reason.
After the Middle Ages the discussion of knowledge, truth and reality led to the formation of new currents to explain the obtaining of knowledge and philosophical answers.
Then, during the Enlightenment, gnoseology emerged, which focuses on the way of studying knowledge. By the end of the s. XIX other movements were manifested, such as idealism, scientific realism, epistemology and critical realism.
-It focuses on the universal principles for the search for reality and truth.
-It poses totalizing or universal concepts for the understanding of abstract and complex approaches.
-Part of the universal to go into the particular.
-It does not have a single field of study, so it focuses on reason and knowledge itself.
-It is in charge of analyzing the origin and nature of things, as well as man.
-It uses a systematic and methodical process (when searching for the truth).
-It is based on reason for the study of the phenomena that happen around man.
-This vision understands the need to take what the universe presents to use that knowledge and make it available to man.
-Search for the deepest purposes of all areas of knowledge.
-It is valid for all perspectives of knowledge.
-Consider that the parts make up a whole, and that these parts interact with each other.
-He is not conformist; that is, it is not satisfied with partial or little illuminating answers. Therefore, try to go as far as possible until you achieve the final goal.
-Knowledge is the cornerstone of philosophy, so it is necessary to understand and recognize the universality of objects.
-A relationship is established between the vision and perception of the object, and the judgment granted by the individual. Therefore, all knowledge is obtained thanks to the intellect and knowledge.
From a scientific point of view, water comes from the chemical formula H2O. However, when we speak of “water” we are also referring to the stimuli and experiences that we have received through it.
Therefore, there is a universally accepted concept as opposed to a set of values obtained from the particular.
In ancient times, Greek societies were organized through the polis, which also acted as a reflection of the universal order and the cosmos. In the polis the individual is able to find his reason for being in society.
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