The fasteners in engineering are rivets, welds, screws, nuts, clamps, bolts, and washers. Each of these elements fulfills the function of maintaining the mechanical connection between two or more parts of an application.
These elements are common in all types of machinery, regardless of size or use. Here is the importance of fastening elements at an industrial level, since without them it would be impossible to assemble mechanical parts, carry out electrical and electronic assemblies, and finish applications in the construction field.
The material from which they are made and the finish of the fasteners are key characteristics to ensure that each element successfully fulfills the function for which it was designed.
Depending on the end use, the fasteners can be of two types:
– If you want the joint to be permanent over time, rivets and welds are used.
– On the other hand, if the interest is that the mechanical connection can be removable, then screws, nuts, clamps, bolts and washers are used.
Main fastening elements
A rivet is a cylindrical roller with a single protruding end. This piece is placed between the object elements, and then complemented by placing a head at the other end to fix the joint.
Rivets are generally made of aluminum, steel, copper or brass.
It consists of joining two or more metal parts by applying heat (electric arc) and pressure, using the filler metal as a joining mechanism.
This metal usually has a considerably lower melting temperature with respect to the material that makes up the object pieces. Tin is commonly used in these types of applications.
It is a tubular element with a protruding head at one end and a thread at the other, which allows its use as a clamping function, force transmission or adjustment between two elements.
The screws are usually made of steel, but it is also possible to find screws made of iron, lead, bronze, metal alloys, plastic and even wood.
These pieces have a hole in the center, an internal thread, which allows their use in coupling with a screw to complement the union between two pieces.
The thread of the nut can be hexagonal, square, butterfly or blind hexagonal.
It is an adjustable piece that, as its name implies, hugs the coupling piece, which is generally cylindrical.
The clamps can be metal or plastic; the material to be used will depend directly on the final application.
It is a metal piece similar to a screw, but much larger. At the lower end (the threaded part) a nut is usually screwed on or a rivet is placed, in order to hold two or more large pieces.
It is a circular or hexagonal piece with a hole in the center. It is used to mechanically fasten nuts or bolts to a structure and prevent their displacement.
The washers ensure the tightness of the application and prevent any type of leakage through the joining of the pieces. Therefore, its use in plumbing applications is very common.
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