The typical costumes of Quintana Roo are one of the cultural aspects that its inhabitants have made the most effort to preserve. There is a typical official costume; however, there are others that are representative of the different territories and celebrations of the state.
Quintana Roo is one of the states that make up the Mexican nation. Located in the Yucatan peninsula, to the southeast of the national territory, it is popular for its international tourist attractions.
Its capital is Chetumal, although its most populated and popular city is Cancun, the epicenter of coastal tourism. It is one of the states with the smallest population in Mexico.
The official history of Quintana Roo dates back to the beginning of the 20th century, and its name comes from Andrés Quintana Roo, politician and writer, who was one of the signatories of the Act of Independence of Mexico .
Quintana Roo houses in its different regions a great cultural and historical wealth that is reflected in its buildings and coastal forts.
Celebrations and cultural festivities are very important, to the point of having unique characteristics depending on the region of the state in which they are held.
Main typical costumes of Quintana Roo
1- The Chetumaleña
It is the oldest costume and is considered the most representative of the state of Quintana Roo. It was designed and introduced in 1936, inspired by the most significant ceremonial outfits of the Mayan princesses.
Today citizens consider it a worthy reflection of their ancestors and original cultures.
It is a feminine dress made up of two pieces. The lower part consists of a long skirt whose ornaments symbolize the south and the interior of the Earth. Their patterns can be embroidered or painted on the fabric.
The upper part is a wide cape or cloak, open at the sides, allowing freedom of movement at the height of the bust.
The cape also has embroidery and patterns representative of aboriginal cultures, both on the front and on the back.
These embroideries represent ancient deities, such as the descendant of Tulum. On the edges you can find details mainly in green, since it is considered representative of the Mayans.
The lower part of the cape usually shows other patterns of natural connotations: fauna, flora and forest richness below the divine images.
2- Indigenous costume
Its use is typical of the central region of the state. It is a representative costume of ethnic origins, a vestige that seeks to preserve the cultural qualities of the original civilizations. This dress has its version of both men and women, the latter being the most common of its presentations.
The dress of the Quintana Roo woman is white huipil, a representative color of the Yucatan Peninsula. It is a one-piece suit, with striking but not extravagant embroidery, accompanied by colors that can be considered sober.
The embroidery is found at the neckline and at the bottom of the skirt, leaving a portion of hipil white on most of the body.
The accessories that accompany this set can be a white bow on the head and gold earrings.
The masculine presentation of this group is considered the most original among all the neighboring regions and states, since it hardly bears any similarity to any of the others.
The man wears a long, light-colored shirt that usually falls below the waist. It is used closed, but between the buttons there is a gap that simulates an opening.
The shirt includes a pocket on each side of the torso, where the man keeps his bandanas or cloths. The pants are smooth and fall to the calves. Both the woman and the man wear bare feet.
3- Traditional costume
This traditional costume can be considered an alternative version of the indigenous costume, starting from some of its qualities and adding new elements. It is mostly seen in smaller towns.
In the woman there is a very similar dress, made of huipil and with embroidery on the neck and skirt; some presentations spread the embroidery over most of the dress. This costume is complemented with a shawl.
In men the differences between this and the indigenous costume are more marked. Apart from the shirt and pants, they also wear a plaid apron, a palm hat and the most characteristic, a pair of leather espadrilles.
The ceremonial versions of this costume feature different details, such as finer-finished embroidery and more delicate fabrics.
Women wear a greater number of colorful accessories, such as earrings and headbands; the men wear Philippine hats, bandanas and change their palm hat for a jipijapa hat.
4- mestizo costume
This feminine suit is made up of two pieces: a white short-sleeved blouse and a long, wide skirt.
At the waist, joining both pieces, it has a white lace with details. The blouse has a square neckline with embroidered ornaments and five snails representing maritime wealth.
The blouse also has colored details on the edges of its sleeves, and they are usually in harmony with the colors present on the skirt.
The long and wide skirt is red and also has embroidery inspired by the elements present in the Quintana Roo coat of arms.
Accessories include a hair comb, flower crowns, a bow, necklaces, earrings, and a pair of slippers.
It is a typical costume with many symbolic connotations, since different characteristic elements of the state of Quintana Roo are represented.
It is a way of exalting the natural and cultural riches that this territory has and the people who inhabit it. It is a ceremonial costume, which can be seen in official regional celebrations.
Fernández, Í. F. (2004). Mexico history. Pearson Education.
Maiza, JA (1988). Encyclopedia of Quintana Roo. Chetumal.
QROO. (sf). Culture . Obtained from QROO: qroo.gob.mx
Indigenous Action Secretariat. (November 30, 2015). The current costume in Quintana Roo . Obtained from the Indigenous Action Secretariat of the Institutional Revolutionary Party: indigenas.pri.org.mx