The social and regional diversity of the revolutionary movements during the 20th century was one of the most important characteristics of the Mexican Revolution, since this phenomenon facilitated the success of the uprisings and influenced them to become a social and political event that left a mark in the history of Latin America.
This means that the Mexican Revolution was characterized by its heterogeneity, since it had a wide diversity in its manifestations, these being influenced by geographical and cultural settings. Consequently, the Revolution did not occur in the same way in the north and in the south, although the peasants were inspired by the same goal.
In 1910, the Mexican peasants decided to rise up as a form of protest against a measure taken by the dictatorial government of Porfirio Díaz, in which it was established that the town’s lands would be confiscated with the aim of turning them over to the demarcation companies.
From this moment on, the people of Mexico decided to take up arms under the tutelage of the leaders and caudillos Emiliano Zapata and Francisco Villa, who remained in the fight for agrarian rights until the day of their death. After the uprisings, Venustiano Carranza created the Constitution of 1917, which is still in force today.
Government of Porfirio Díaz and campaign of Francisco Madero
During the mandate of Porfirio Díaz, between 1876 and 1911, the country experienced overwhelming economic growth and maintained a certain political stability.
However, these achievements were obtained through high social and economic costs, which mainly affected the less favored classes of Mexican society and representatives of the opposition.
In fact, it can be established that at that time the majority of Mexicans lived in precarious conditions. Certain activities, such as cattle ranching, agriculture and mining, were still sustained by a feudal system, while in urban areas the workers were exploited and did not have basic labor rights.
For this reason, the opposition leader Francisco Madero decided to carry out a series of tours throughout the country with the aim of forging a new political party. However, he was arrested for sedition.
Despite this, Madero managed to escape from prison and summoned the people to rise up in arms with the aim of ending the dictatorial regime of Díaz. After this, peasant leaders from various regions of the country began a series of revolts that completely modified the old Mexican procedure.
Regional and social diversity within the Mexican Revolution
The San Luis Plan
On October 5, 1910 Francisco Madero announced the Plan of San Luis. His famous motto was “effective suffrage, not reelection.”
In this plan, Madero claimed not only labor rights, but also the distribution of land that was sought by some social groups that disagreed with Díaz.
Likewise, this plan also included a call for armed struggle, specifically on November 20, after six in the afternoon.
However, some groups rose up before the date, as they were discovered in possession of weapons. This happened to the Aquiles brothers, as well as to Carmen and Máximo Serdán.
The Aquiles brothers died when confronting the government authorities, which made them become the first martyrs of the revolution against Díaz; This caused other insurrections to develop throughout the country.
One of the reasons why it is established that the revolutionary movements in Mexico were heterogeneous and diverse is because a coordinated uprising was not carried out on the day scheduled by Moreno.
This is because before that date, up to thirteen mistress events had already been developed and registered, carried out in different regions and states of the country.
The uprisings in the different Mexican regions
The first uprising occurred in Durango, which is why this state is considered “the cradle of the Revolution.”
In this area the rebels were commanded by Jesús Agustín Castro, who ordered them to loot the city bank and free the political prisoners who were in the municipal jail. This was intended to make them part of his cause.
Other uprisings also occurred, mainly in rural areas such as San Luis de Potosí, Veracruz and Chihuahua. In the latter, the leaders Francisco Villa and Pascual Orozco stood out, while in Coahuila the peasants had the leadership of José María Maytorena and the Gutiérrez brothers.
On the other hand, in Cuatro Ciénagas the rebel group was commanded by Cesáreo Castro, while in Cuchillo Parado the leader José de la Luz Blanco remained. Likewise, the Figueroa brothers fought in Guerrero, while in Morelos the rebels were under the command of Emiliano Zapata.
Consequently, the Mexican Revolution was diverse not only because it developed in different states of the country, but also because it had a handful of leaders and representatives who came from different places and had different cultures.
Despite these regional and cultural differences, the uprisings were successful because the leaders stood together under a common goal.
The leaders of the Revolution
Emiliano Zapata Salazar
He is recognized for having been the most important peasant and military leader of the Mexican Revolution. In addition, it is currently remembered as a symbol of peasant resistance and perseverance in Mexico.
He was also known under the nickname of “the leader of the south” and was an ideologue who defended agrarian demands and social struggles.
Emiliano Zapata was also interested in the indigenous communities and the Mexican working class, who were victims of the latifundismo and the oligarchy of Porfirio Díaz’s landowners.
Francisco (Pancho) Villa
He was one of the most prominent leaders of the Mexican Revolution. Some historians consider that his military action was decisive during the uprisings.
He was also known under the nickname “the northern centaur” and was killed during an ambush in Chihuahua in 1923.
Pascual Orozco was a prominent general and leader of the Mexican revolutionary movement. In 1910 he was one of the first to take up arms in support of the Plan of San Luis.
After the triumph of the Revolution, Pascual became head of the irregular troops during his stay in Chihuahua.
Later, Orozco rebelled again but this time against the government of Francisco Madero. After this he joined the coup government of Victoriano Huerta, who appointed him brigadier general.
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