Salvador Alvarado Rubio (1880-1924) was a Mexican military man and intellectual, known as one of the most important representatives of the Central American Revolution. This scholar participated in the war in order to free the Mesoamerican country from dictatorship and oppression.
General Alvarado was against the ideals of Porfirio Díaz and, along with other soldiers and politicians, began his career by being on the side of those most in need in his city. He was also part of the Liberal Party of Mexico.
He was a secret disseminator of the ideas of Ricardo Flores Magón, a philosopher sympathetic to democracy, who opposed the reelection of Porfirio Díaz. In addition, Alvarado was in favor of a more just society, so he fought to establish his ideals within the Central American region.
It is convenient to note that his political role was determined by rapid promotions. Likewise, thanks to his intelligence, agility and courage, he received the nomination of enlightened general . He left an important legacy in the letters and stood out for making a significant number of essays, manifestos and writings that demonstrate his effort to make Mexico a better nation.
Salvador Alvarado Rubio was born in Sinaloa in September 1880. His parents were Timoteo Alvarado and Antonia Rubio. Later, due to circumstances of his patriotic enthusiasm, he settled in Yucatan in middle age, becoming governor of this state.
He was a student of letters and demonstrated his quality as a writer in the various essays, stories and ideas that preceded the Mexican Constitution of 1917. While he was a humanist, he also devoted himself to the office of general, where he developed numerous military strategies. His objective was to form an army that would fight against the despotism of Díaz.
In the mid-1900s, he married Luz de Alvarado, who died in Sonora while serving the exile order. Soon after, Alvarado returned to Yucatán, where he remarried Laureana Manzano Mendoza in 1916.
Childhood and youth
When he was eight years old, Alvarado moved to Potám with his parents. Later, she moved to the port of Guaymas, where she lived her adolescence and developed a friendship with the young Adolfo de la Huerta. In that same place he managed to work in a pharmacy. Some time later, he opened his pharmacy in Cananea, a town in Sonora.
He specialized in the commercial area and, being in that town, he joined the Mexican Liberal Party. In 1906, when he was only twenty-six years old, he witnessed a protest by miners in Cananea; Although he was not a participant, Salvador agreed with the requirements demanded by the workers.
Some historians claim that he was a visionary and dreamer, which led him to meet various adversaries along the way. However, he knew how to manage social and economic growth during his government and make Yucatán reborn after the dictatorship.
In the revolutionary process, Alvarado stood out for spreading –through the pamphlets– the ideals of Ricardo Flores; He was in charge of propagating the proposals that went against the re-election of Porfirio Díaz and thus began his journey through the struggle for a free state, which sought sovereignty.
In 1910, Salvador joined the insurrection of the assault on the Hermosillo barracks. This uprising was led by Francisco Madero, who was the biggest opponent of the Porfiriato . Although some of his companions were repressed, Salvador was able to flee to Arizona. Later, he decided to return to Mexico accompanied by Madero with the aim of overthrowing Porfirio.
For the uprising organized by Madero, Alvarado was appointed captain. This led him to command the attack carried out on January 14, 1911, which allowed them to enter through northern Mexico.
In May of that same year, General Díaz decided to resign from his post due to pressure from the revolutionary troops and the Treaty of Ciudad Juárez. For this reason, Madero assumed state command and promoted his troop.
Thanks to these events, Major Alvarado grew up in the political world. Following the regulations of the new government, he was appointed commander of the Federal Auxiliary Corps. Likewise, he stood out for his skills, loyalty and will, being considered an eminence.
Governor of the state of Yucatán
In the following years the armed movements that sought to overthrow the revolution did not cease. This resulted in the failure of Madero to maintain power and was assassinated in 1913. In response, Victoriano Huerta took the government post and established another dictatorship, which was not supported by Salvador.
Later, Salvador was again promoted by the governor of Sonora as a lieutenant colonel thanks to his democratic work. This position kept him occupied for a couple of years.
Later, he joined the troop that guarded the conventionists and was relocated to Mexico City to prevent any counter-attack by the rebels. In the midst of these battles he was transferred to Yucatan, where the upper class of this city did not agree with his arrival.
Despite this, he managed to become the governor of that territory and began to change social life through laws, which were exaggerated for those who did not understand the true plan of progress and freedom. During this period, Salvador focused on reforming secular education and stated that primary was compulsory.
In turn, he financed the First Feminist Congress and forged norms to prevent alcoholism among indigenous people. Its purpose was for its ideas and programs to spread throughout all territories and make Mexico an advanced country in economic, social and political terms.
In 1918 he decided to retire from public life, so in the course of that year he handed over the power to his successor and emigrated to New York. After a while, he returned to Mexico and became involved in the rebellion against Venustiano Carranza. After the success of this, he was nominated Secretary of the Treasury by the provisional government of Adolfo de la Huerta.
However, a few days later he returned to New York under pressure from his opponents. After three years outside the country, he returned to support Adolfo de la Huerta; but this was defeated in 1924. Alvarado fled again to the United States and from there he wanted to continue fighting.
In June 1924, he went to the El Hormiguero ranch and was surprised by a trap planned by Colonel Federico Aparicio. Consequently, Alvarado was assassinated on June 10 by several lieutenants.
The enlightened general stood out for his heroic feats in the Mexican Revolution, but he was also a studied person who, from a young age, became interested in the world of reading. In Cananea he was a regular reader of the newspaper Regeneración .
His first writings – which he made at an early age – were about the thoughts and projects he came to have; but after exile, he began to write literary works. In this way, it is perceived that Alvarado was characterized by developing certain political and social principles.
During his tenure, he enacted more than a thousand laws, founded rural schools for those most in need, and focused on protecting the Mayan tribes. He also dedicated a large part of his life to expressing his ideology, which is why he left an extensive work. Although the exact dates of the posts are unknown, these are some of his outstanding writings.
-My revolutionary performance in Yucatán (1910).
-Letter to the people of Yucatán (1910).
– The reconstruction of Mexico : a message to the peoples of America . (1919).
-My dream (1916).
“The books! Here are the sores that are making us sick and those who have made our very poor national pedagogy constitutionally sick. Not the books themselves, but the exclusive use of them ”.
“It is impossible to form an idea of the possibilities of this great railway line without having seen at least part of the regions that the noise of the locomotive will awaken a new life of civilization and work” (phrase pronounced during a talk about a journey railway that would run through each province of Mexico).
“I found Yucatán in full servitude; Thousands of unfortunates, because of traditional institutions and social vices, so deeply rooted that they seemed indestructible, languished from generation to generation, with their lives sold to the ‘masters’, with the relaxed muscles of enriching the caste of lords ; with the soul and conscience subject to the invisible iron of a bitter slavery, in which they had learned, from father to son, that they could have no other dream of joy, than that of alcohol, nor any other hope of liberation than death ».
“Wretched men and peoples who have lost respect for what is sacred and inviolable!”
“Nothing more primitive than the aggrandizement of our race weakened by slavery and by the degeneration produced by alcohol.”
“We ask for land and books, we want economic independence, we do not want wealth accumulated in a few hands, nor do we want the landowners to reallocate something to alleviate the needs of the majority.”
“As long as we do not elevate women, it will be impossible for us to make a country.”
«Friendship and political commitments make me fight again with those I convinced to go to the Revolution and I must be with them; Always remember that it is better for you to be the widow of a brave man than the wife of a coward »(letter to his wife before returning to Mexico).
- Carlson, P. (2013). Between politics and writing: Salvador Alvarado . Retrieved on January 16, 2020 from Faculty of History: history.ox
- Gómez, G. (2018). Salvador Alvarado and that dream train. Retrieved on January 14, 2020 from PorEsto !: poresto.net
- Martínez, S. (SF). Major General Salvador Alvarado Rubio. Retrieved on January 14, 2020 from the Government of Mexico: gob.mx
- N. (2019). Alvarado, Salvador (1880–1924). Retrieved on January 14, 2020 from Encyclopedia: encyclopedia.com
- N. (SF). Legacy of Salvador Alvarado, base of the current Yucatan fortress. Retrieved on January 15, 2020 from Reporteros hoy: reporteroshoy.mx
- Carmona, D. (SF). Salvador Alvarado. Retrieved on January 15, 2020 from Memoria politica de México: memoriapoliticademexico.org