Political Society: Characteristics, Types, Examples

Political society is a concept of the social and political sciences that is used to refer to the combination between the State and civil society, spheres that are in a continuous and growing process of interpenetration to regulate common life.

It is important to differentiate it from natural society, which is usually defined as “a convergent intra-structure that is made up of direct and control relationships based mainly on kinship, where there is practically no division of labor and in which religion is key to social cohesion. ».

As opposed to natural society, political society has a degree of complexity and is divergent. It is constituted as a State when it generates a border against other political societies with which it is not integrated and is also considered self-sufficient, thus establishing its sovereignty.

Political society involves a series of complex processes, mediation systems, negotiation of interests, in which individual and collective social actors, civil and governmental are protagonists when asserting their interests of a diverse nature.

characteristics

Political society usually appears when the political components of natural societies develop and reorganize until reaching a certain proportion and structure.

One of the characteristics of political society is the participation of civil and governmental actors, in a space that is not properly the sphere of collective decisions, nor the sphere of private decisions.

This set of actors has diverse resources, interests and perceptions, as well as developing global and specific interaction strategies and guidelines.

It is considered a public space where the social contract is elaborated and reconstructed, which means that they collide, negotiate and reach agreements between public and private interests.

Among its dynamics, a basic aspect of political society are the processes of political participation in which citizens have a dual purpose: on the one hand, to choose the people who will occupy government positions, and on the other to influence the decisions made by the elected authorities. adopt.

Political society tends to be made up of rulers and ruled, since its natural process or nucleus consists of a powerful, dominant part setting in motion and turning the other parts around itself, thus forming an unstable equilibrium.

Types

The state originates when two or more primary political societies come to meet and need to establish border lines that separate them. Considering the structure of the body politic and the branches of power, one can speak of various classifications of governments.

Among the classic classifications, that of Aristotle stands out, who proposed 6 basic types of government, three of them described as fair and the other three as unfair. The former seek to seek the common good and happiness of the governed, and pose them as pure or perfect forms. Meanwhile, the latter focus on the common good and happiness of the rulers, which is why they are considered corrupt or degenerate forms of the perfect.

Among the just governments it refers to the Monarchy (government of one), the Aristocracy (government of the best) and Democracy (government of the people).

Among the unjust are Tyranny (government of one who abuses his authority, corruption of the monarchy), oligarchy (government of a few powerful, corruption of the aristocracy) and demagoguery (quasi-anarchic misgovernment, based on manipulation and deception, corruption of democracy).

If we stick to these times, the classification of the current forms of government is:

Republic

Form of government in which the head of state is a public office that has been obtained by direct or indirect public election. There are the following types of Republic:

– Presidential Republic: the president is the active head of the executive branch and is both head of state and head of government.

– Presidential republic with a non-executive prime minister: the president is the active head of the executive, but appoints a prime minister who coordinates the tasks of the government.

– Semi-presidential republic: the president has executive authority, but part of his role is fulfilled by the prime minister who is responsible to the legislative chamber.

– Parliamentary Republic: system in which the prime minister is the head of the executive branch and the leader of the legislature, so the president only has ceremonial and representative functions.

– Mixed parliamentary republic: the executive power is in the hands of the president but also of the legislature.

– One-party republic: states in which a single party has power in the government.

Monarchy

It is a government system that is made up of a personal, lifetime and hereditary head of state. There are the following types of Monarchy:

– Constitutional or parliamentary monarchy: the monarch exercises the position of head of state and government, while the parliament is the one who retains the legislative power.

– Constitutional monarchy with active monarch: the monarch retains significant powers and control over all powers, although there is a constitutional text and a prime minister in charge of the executive.

– Absolute monarchy: the monarch has the absolute power of the government.

Theocracy

In this form of government, the political and religious authority is the same, so there is no separation of powers.

State governed by military boards

Power is exercised by high command of the State armed forces.

Examples

Among the presidential republics, Angola, Ghana, Nigeria stand out on the African territory. Argentina, Colombia, Uruguay, Panama, United States in America. In Asia, Turkey, the Philippines, Iran, Afghanistan and Turkmenistan can be identified.

Examples of presidential republics with a non-executive prime minister are usually Cameroon, Rwanda, Sudan, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Guyana, Peru, South Korea, Uzbekistan, and Belarus.

Countries such as Algeria, Senegal, Mozambique, Haiti, Sri Lanka, Yemen, Palestine, Syria, France, Portugal, Romania, Russia, and Ukraine are examples of semi-presidential republics.

Among the governments formed as parliamentary republics are Trinidad and Tobago, Ethiopia, Libya, Armenia, Nepal, Israel, Germany, Hungary, Greece, Italy, Iceland, Croatia, Ireland, Samoa, among others.

Cuba, North Korea, the People’s Republic of China, and Vietnam are examples of one-party republics.

Among the monarchical systems we can mention Malaysia, Thailand, Japan, Denmark, Spain, Norway, among others, as a parliamentary monarchy; while Morocco, Monaco, Bhutan, United Arab Emirates as constitutional monarchies and with absolute stand out Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Swaziland, among others.

Examples of theocracies are Iran and Vatican City and of states ruled by military junta is Sudan.

References  

  1. Navarro Yánez, CJ (2002, October 8-11). Political society as a research agenda: conceptual delimitation and analytical frameworks . VII International Congress of CLAD on the Reform of the State and Public Administration, Lisbon, Portugal.
  2. Natural society / Political society. (sf). Recovered from Philosophy.org
  3. Well, G. (1991) First essay on the categories of ‘political science’ . Logroño: Cultural Rioja.
  4. Political society. (2019, July 27). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia . Recovered from wikipedia.org
  5. Types of Political Societies – Notes from the Professor of Philosophy. (sf). Recovered sites.google.com
  6. Form of government. (2019, October 25). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Recovered from wikipedia.org

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