Flora And Fauna Of Ecuador: Most Representative Species

The flora and fauna of Ecuador are among the most diverse on the planet. Ecuador has 46 ecosystems that include mountain ranges, paramos, tropical forests, jungles and deserts. It has heights ranging from zero to almost 6400 meters above sea level.

ANDl 15% of Ecuador’s native fauna is made up of species that are not found elsewhere. They have been identified 3,800 species of vertebrate animals , 1,550 species of mammals, 375 species of amphibians, 350 kinds of reptiles and 1,600 species of birds, of which 15% are endemic.

In the rivers of Ecuador there are 800 species of fish. In addition, there are 450 species that are saltwater on the shores of the Pacific Ocean. Regarding the flora, it has 8,200 plant species only in the Amazon region. The tree species number 25,000 and are distributed in all its regions.

Flora of Ecuador

1- Orchids

In Ecuador, more than 4200 different species of orchids flourish; 1,300 of these grow exclusively in this country.

Because of this, Ecuador ranks first in the world for the diversity of orchids.

2- Carnations

It is one of the most widely exported flowers. Varieties that are exclusive to Ecuador are grown. The most cultivated are Dark Orange Telstar, Dallas, Charmeur and Norla Barlo.

3- Heliconias

Heliconias are known as the flowers that attract hummingbirds. There are 220 different varieties. Blue, orange, and red are just some of the colors of these flowers.

The colors vary due to the interbreeding caused by hummingbirds through pollination.

4- Pink

Among the flowers that Ecuador exports, the rose occupies a preponderant place. It produces more than 60 different varieties.

Color is one of its greatest attractions. The red rose (First Red, Classic, Dallas, Mahalia, among others), the yellow (Aalsmeer Gold, Skyline) or the purple ones (Ravel and Greta) stand out.

Of course there are also intermediate tones in all species. Ecuador is one of the four countries that exports the most flowers.

5- Astromeliads

It is also known as the lily of the Incas and is the flower symbol of friendship. They are resistant, large and very showy flowers.

It has a great variety of colors in its 120 different species. It is a flower native to the South American Andes.

6- Chuquiragua

Species located in the mountains of Ecuador at about 3,500 meters above sea level. It is a small shrub highly valued for its use as firewood, in addition to its supposed medicinal properties against certain conditions. 

7- Chrysanthemum

Although native to Asia, these flowers have a great production in Ecuador, being highly valued for decorative or funerary use. It has a certain resemblance to the daisy and blooms in autumn.

Fauna of Ecuador

1- Galapagos tortoise

Although it does not live in continental Ecuador, the giant tortoise is the most representative animal of the Ecuadorian fauna.

2- Condor

This bird is another of the emblematic animals of the Ecuadorian fauna. It can be found throughout the entire Andes Mountains and is the largest wing-spanning bird on the planet.

3- spectacled bear

It is the only bear native to South America and is in serious danger of extinction. It inhabits discontinuously in the Andes Mountains, from Venezuela to Argentina.

4- Parrot of Guayaquil

It is a species of parrot endemic to Ecuador that is really threatened by the destruction of its habitat.

It is the emblematic bird of the city of Guayaquil. In this city a 12-meter-high statue was erected, which is decorated with 70,000 pieces of pottery. 

In 2002, the construction of the monument was considered convenient to raise awareness about the danger that this animal runs.

5- Monkeys

Ecuador has a very abundant variety of monkeys, although many are in danger of extinction. Some of the species found in its forests are:

– Pygmy marmoset.

– Black-necked marmoset.

– Screaming monkey.

– Copper marmoset.

– Cotoncillo with yellow hands.

– Saki necklace.

– Scalp.

– Squirrel monkey.

– White-fronted cappuccino.

– Red howler monkey.

– Churuco.

6- Bats

One third of the mammals of Ecuador are bats. There are different species. This is a consequence of the number of insect species that populate Ecuador: insects are the main food for bats.

7- Marine iguana

Its name is misleading, since it is a land iguana endemic to the Galapagos Islands. It likes to live near rocky areas, although it is also possible to see it in coastal beach areas or mangroves. They are of an exceptional size, being able to measure up to 1.5 kg and weigh 15 kilos.

8- Sea lion

Also endemic to the Galapagos, although it can also be seen on islands such as Malpelo or Gorgona. It is an otárido (similar to seals) with an elongated snout and an approximate size of 250 cm. It is common to see them in coastal areas.


  1. “Ecuador” in Fauna and Flora International. Retrieved in November 2017 from: fauna-flora.org
  2. “The fauna and flora of Ecuador” in Voyages (October 2017). Recovered in November 2017 from: voyagesphotosmanu.com
  3. “Fauna and flora of Ecuador” in Slideshare (August 2009). Retrieved in November 2017 from: es.slideshare.net
  4. “Flora and fauna of Ecuador” in La Reserva (November 2016). Recovered in November 2017 from: lareserva.com
  5. “Flowers abound in Ecuador” from Ecuador. Retrieved in November 2017 from Ecuandor at: ecuador.com
  6. «The animals of the Ecuadorian Amazon» in Cuyabeno Lodge. Recovered in November 2017 from Cuyabeno Lodge at: québenolodge.com

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