Coastal Mountain Region: Location, Flora, Fauna, Climate

The Costa Montaña Region  is the territory located to the northwest or north-west of Venezuela. It limits to the north and west with the Caribbean Sea, to the south with the Marabina Depression and to the east with the Yaracuy depression. The States of Vargas, Miranda, Táchira, Mérida, Carabobo, Sucre, Nueva Esparta, Zulia, Falcón, Aragua and Anzoátegui constitute said region.

Venezuela is located in the northern part of South America, on the shores of the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, between Colombia and Guyana. To the south it borders Brazil. Its proximity to the Meriadiano of Ecuador provides it with a warm, humid climate and with forests rich in biotic diversity.

Venezuela mountain coast region

The country is geographically divided into three main regions: the Andes Mountains (located in the north, very close to the Venezuelan coast), the Orinoco Basin (located to the south) and the Planalto de las Guianas (located to the south and southeast of the Orinoco Basin).

The coastal region also includes 300 islands, islets and cays that occupy 4000km in the Caribbean Sea.

Characteristics of the Mountain Coast Region

– relief

The Venezuelan Andes is the most prominent orographic accident in the country, covering an area of ​​36,120 square kilometers.

Upon reaching Venezuela, the mountain range forks into two mountain ranges: the Sierra de Perijá and the Cordillera de Mérida, which range from the Táchira Depression in the southwest to the northeast in the Barquisimeto-Acarigua Depression.

The highest point in Venezuela is Pico Bolívar with 4980 meters above sea level (msnm).

Sierra Perijá

It is the western chain, it is located on the west side of the State of Zulia and borders Colombia. Its highest height is 3,750 meters above sea level (The geographical space of Venezuela, 2017).

This region is sparsely populated and lives off cattle ranching and the dairy industry.

Merida mountain range

It is located east of the Zulia Depression. In this mountain range the relief reaches its maximum elevations, being the Pico de Bolívar (4980 m) the highest and continuing with peaks Humboldt (4,924 m), Bonpland (4,882 m).

The lands are optimal for agriculture but the crops vary based on the altitude of the mountains.

– Islands

The meeting of the Caribbean Sea (which is part of the Atlantic Ocean) with the Cordillera de la Costa makes it easy to classify the islands into two classes.

Continental islands

They are called this way because of their continuity to the Venezuelan coast and in which they appear Margarita Island (the largest and most important of all), Los Testigos, Cubagua and Coche.

Its surface is also made up of igneous and metamorphic rocks such as the elevations of the mountain range.

Offshore islands

They are located more than 200 nautical miles away and arose from coral reefs. The two most important are the archipelago of Los Monjes and that of Isla Alves. The others are Los Roques, La Orchila, La Blanquilla and Los Hermanos.

– Flora, fauna and climate

The altitudes of the region allow to have different thermal floors that offer snow, desert, lakes and beaches, whose scenery is also set with the endemic flora and fauna of the region.

Most of the lands of the Andes Mountains are cultivable and coffee plantations stand out.

On the mountain peaks of Bolívar, Humboldt and Bonpland, the temperatures are equal to or even lower than 0 °, so the climate is freezing and the vegetation is scarce.

In the paramero floor, which enjoys temperatures between 8 ° to 0 °, coffee, wheat, potatoes and other tubers are grown. Rainfall is moderate and humidity is low.

Most of the Northern Cordillera and the lower sections of the Andes (such as the coastal zone) have a tropical savanna climate with low rainfall and temperatures between 26 ° to 30 °.

The islands have xerophilous thorn forest vegetation with temperatures above 26 °, very typical of the very arid tropical climate.

In all the thermal floors, the flora and fauna are different and numerous. The absence of seasons allows the continuity of the same climate most of the year, with the exception of some seasons of droughts and rains (typical of the countries on the Equator). Consequently, the biodiversity of the mountain coast area is very high.


The Andean-coastal mountainous arc leads the waters that arise from the region to one of the basins (of the Orinoco River or of Lake Maracaibo) or one of the slopes (of the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea).

Due to topographic irregularities of the terrain that facilitate the presence of valleys and mountains, the course of the rivers is not regular, forming jumps that are used for hydroelectric production. However, the flow of the rivers is weak and short-haul.


Most of the population is concentrated in this region, for this reason, it is not surprising that there are more important port cities along the Venezuelan coast (McColl, 2005, p. 962), such as Puerto Cabello, Cumaná and Barcelona.

The most important port is La Guaira, even without having a natural port; it reached this position thanks to its location near the capital, Caracas, and the rich agricultural areas (McColl, 2005, p. 962).


  1. Codazzi, A. (1841). Mountains In A. Codazzi, Geography of Venezuela (p. 610). Paris: H. Fournier.
  2. Diamón Oropeza, J., & Rodríguez Henríquez, Y. (2014). Geography of Venezuela 5th grade. Social Sciences. Caracas: Bicentennial Collection.
  3. The geographical space of Venezuela. (2017, 7 10). Recovered from Educarmaspaz:
  4. McColl, R. (2005). Venezuela. In R. McColl, Encyclopedia of World Geography (pp. 962-964). New York: Facts On File.
  5. Tovar, R. (1992). Geographical perspective of Venezuela. For a realistic understanding of the geographic space of Venezuela. Caracas: Vadell Hermanos Editores.

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