6 Advantages Of Colombia’s Geographical Position

The advantages of Colombia’s geographic position are related to its geographic position for climate or trade. The Republic of Colombia is a transcontinental country located predominantly in the northwestern region of the South American continent with some territories corresponding to North America.

This country is limited to the northwest by Panama, to the east by Venezuela and Brazil and to the south by Ecuador and Peru. Its maritime limits are shared with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica and Haiti.

This position gives it certain advantages in terms of natural resources, physical characteristics, economy and trade that separate it from its neighbors on the continent. You may also be interested in this article on natural resources from Colombia .

Advantages of Colombia’s position

Colombia has a unique position within the countries of South America since it is the only one that has a coastline on both the Pacific and Atlantic oceans.

Six ecoregions can be clearly distinguished, each with particular geographic and cultural characteristics.

The territory is crossed by the Andes Mountains , a region that is shared with Ecuador and Venezuela.

The region of the Caribbean coast is shared with Panama and Venezuela. To the west is the Pacific region shared with Panama and Ecuador. To the east are the low plains of Los LLanos that it shares with Venezuela.

The Amazon forest region covers a large portion of the country and is shared with Venezuela, Brazil, Peru, and Ecuador.

In turn, the insular region includes the archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina, the Caribbean Sea and the islands of Malpelo and Gorgona in the Pacific Ocean.

Intertropical zone

The equatorial line crosses Colombia through the southern region, which means that most of the country is in the torrid or intertropical region.

This convergence zone is the point where the northeast and southeast trade winds meet. This characteristic makes this point in particular one of the wettest on the planet and lacks a marked dry season.


Due to its geographical location, the climate of Colombia can be classified as tropical and isothermal.

The position of the intertropical convergence zone throughout the year produces a winter with two periods of intense rains and a summer with two periods of sporadic rains.

The variety of altitudes in the country caused by the relief of the Cordillera de los Andes, also contributes with multiple climates throughout the territory.

Position and trade

The geographical location of Colombia serves as a connection point between the countries of the north and south of the hemisphere. This also functions as the gateway to South America, with ports serving the rest of the Americas, Europe, and countries in the Pacific basin.

Colombia is located near the Panama Canal and is the stopping point for the main airlines on the continent. The country’s coastal ports show that Colombia is not only an air convergence point, but also a maritime one, which facilitates trade and bilateral relations.

Colombia’s comparative advantage in this regard is that of an improvement in commercial operations, since it has the capacity to export on both coasts. Products such as coffee are usually exported through the Ports of Santa Marta and Cartagena in the Caribbean and Buenaventura in the Pacific.

Climatic conditions also favor the preservation of many perishable products that otherwise could not withstand extreme changes in conditions.

At present, about 17 ship cargo companies operate routes between Colombia and its main commercial partner, the United States.

These routes are carried out by around 296 ships, of which 12 make direct routes between the two countries. Its proximity means that the transit time can be 3 days to Miami and 6 days to New York.

Regarding the air transport trade, from Colombia you can find flights to every major city in the Americas.

Currently there are about 13 cargo airlines that travel between Bogotá and the United States with a rate of 1,574 flights per week. Cities such as Bogotá, Barranquilla, Cali, Medellín and Cartagena have international cargo terminals.

Panama was once part of Colombia and since then this country has launched plans to develop an alternative to the neighboring country’s canal. In conjunction with the government of China, Colombia plans the construction of a dry canal that connects the Pacific and Atlantic coasts by means of a railroad.

Geostationary orbit

Due to its latitudinal position, it is among the few countries that benefit from the geostationary orbit.

In 1976, under the declaration of Bogotá, eight countries located along the equatorial line claimed sovereignty over the geostationary orbits of their territory.

However, these allegations did not achieve any international recognition, but they remain important for future discussions.

International rivers

In the Amazon region of South America, the main access routes to the main cities are through rivers.

Colombia is part of this chain in which the governments of the countries belonging to the basin have built transportation systems around the river that facilitate the development of projects and trade within those areas.


The geographical position of Colombia gives it a variety of climates and territories with particular characteristics.

At present it is estimated that more than 50% of the territory of this country is covered by forests.

According to the Colombian biodiversity information system, the country is home to about 55,000 species of fauna and flora. The portion of the Amazon that corresponds to this country is the habitat of about 10% of the world’s biodiversity and produces 15% of the oxygen that is generated on a global scale.

The impact that mining and industry projects could have on the country’s biodiversity has yet to be reviewed.

In some cases, companies generate guided contributions to the rehabilitation of the habitat of certain species. Environmental associations work to counteract the effect of industrial expansion plans on areas richest in biodiversity.


  1. Royal Geographical Society. Colombia. [Online] [Cited on: March 24, 2017.] rgs.org.
  2. Maps of the World. Colombia Geography. [Online] [Cited on: March 24, 2017.] mapsofworld.com.
  3. Use International Business Publications. Colombia Mineral & Mining Sector Investment and Business Guide. Washington: International Business Publications, 2012. 1-4330-0723-1.
  4. Colombian Association of Coffee Growers. Logistics service and geographical position: advantages for the consolidation of Café de Colombia. [Online] June 2012. [Cited on: March 24, 2017.] cafedecolombia.com.
  5. Procolombia. Colombia: a market of opportunities. [Online] [Cited on: March 24, 2017.] procolombia.co.
  6. Gustini, Ray. Explaining China and Colombia’s ‘Alternative’ Panama Canal. [Online] February 14, 2011. [Cited on: March 25, 2017.] theatlantic.com.
  7. Barett, Helen. Financial Times. Colombia’s Biiodiversity. [Online] June 3, 2013. [Cited on: March 25, 2017.] www.ft.com.

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